[World History] Modern World History Explained with Notes + Cheat Sheet + Video | 1453 – 1991


In the last post, we discussed the birth of Islam, crusades and silk route. Here in this post, I will discuss modern world history. We will take an overview of world history and understand how once an incident leads to another.

What is Modern World History?

  • History = Story with messages
  • World History = Story of the world with messages
  • Modern World History = Story of transition

Modern world history is basically the story of transition. The transition of the pre-modern world into the modern world.

How World Trade Lead to the Industrial Revolution?

  • World Trade means interdependence of trade between various continents or countries with the passage of time.
  • World Trade increased the demands of goods. Demand increased to such level that it went beyond human production. The question was how to fulfil the demand and this became an important cause for the industrial revolution.

Capitalism + Raw materials from colonies + Innovations + High Demand = Industrial Revolution


New World Order

Renaissance and the industrial revolution started giving birth to a new order which had clashes with the old order. This class became the cause of some important revolutions like,

  • English Revolution 17th century
  • American Revolution 1776
  • French revolution 1789
  • Russian Revolution 1917
  • Chinese revolution 1949

New World Order –> Clash with Old Order –> Wars

  • The new order started expansion and development (Germany, Italy, Japan)
  • Old order became insecure (Britain, France)

The emergence of newly industrialised nations, for example, Germany, Italy, Japan etc. in the second half of the 19th century. The emergence of new leaders started the clash of interest between the new and old bosses like Britain and France. The conflict finally resulted in the World Wars.

Nuclear Holocaust?

  • Use of atom bombs in second world war marked the end of the war
  • Human existence came in question
  • World War III = End of the world

Cold War – Disintegration of USSR

But resources are limited and aspirations are unlimited. So started the Cold War.

USSR disintegrated in 1991and this lead to the victory of capitalism or Supremacy of US in the world.

Traditionally, modern world history begins from the Renaissance through UPSC syllabus is from the Industrial Revolution to the disintegration of USSR and supremacy of US.

Topics We Will Discuss

  • Birth of Islam – Crusades – Renaissance
  • Industrial revolution
  • American Revolution
  • American Civil War
  • French Revolution
  • Rise and fall of Napoleon
  • Unification of German
  • Unification of Italy
  • First world war
  • Russian Revolution
  • The economic depression of 1929
  • Fascism and Nazism
  • Second World War
  • Events after the Second World War
  • Chinese revolution
  • Far Eastern question
  • Disintegration of USSR


Syllabus includes 18th century events like Industrial Revolution, World War II, Re drawn boundaries, colonization and decolonization and political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism and their effect on society.



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