[Biodiversity] All You Need to Know About Tigers Census in India 2019 | Nearly 3000 Tigers in India

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Tiger is the national animal of India. Tiger is found in various parts of the country. In this post, I will explain some facts and figures related to Tiger.

Tiger Census in India

  • In the recent Tiger Census, Tiger population an estimated 2,967. India had 2,226 reported tigers in India.
  • 29th July is National Tiger Day

Number of Tigers

Tiger Census
Number of Tigers
2006
1411
2010
1706
2014
2226
2018
2976
You can see that the number of tigers in India is steadily increasing this is good news. Now let us talk about some basics.

What is Population? a population is a group of members of same species living in a specific area.

Where Can You Find Tigers in India?

They are found in various parts of India, but to be specific –

  • Shivalik Hills and Gangetic Plains,
  • Central Indian Landscape and Eastern Ghats,
  • The Western Ghats,
  • North-East Hills and Brahmaputra Plains,
  • and the Sundarbans.

update: the Central Indian landscape is recording the highest increment in numbers.

Why Tigers Are Important?

  1. Tiger is keystone species – he helps to define an entire ecosystem. Being top predator he maintains the balance between herbivores and vegetation. Without him, the entire ecosystem will suffer.
  2. The Global Tiger Forum – It is a collaboration of tiger bearing countries. They have set a target to double the tiger count by 2022. Moreover, more than 80% of the world’s wild tigers are in India.
  3. In 2010, under St Petersburg declaration India committed doubling Tiger population, India achieved deadline much in advance before the 2022 deadline.
  4. Approximately 75% of the tigers are found in India.

How Do They Count the Number of Tigers

  • Pug Mark: In this method, the pug mark i.e. the footprint of the tiger is used to identify tiger in the vicinity. Accuracy is low.
  • Camera Trap: Here night vision camera is used to capture tiger movement. Costlier than the previous method.
  • Poop/Scat Method: Droppings of the big cat are identified and tested and to narrow down the search.
  • Radio Collar Trap: Installing GPS tracker – radio collar trap for continuous tracking of a big cat.

Some Facts That You Should Know for Prelims

  • No tiger found in the Buxa, Palamau and Dampa reserves.
  • The number of tigers increased from 2226 in 2014 to 2967 in 2018

State Wise Numbers

  • Tiger state Madhya Pradesh saw the highest number of tigers @526
  • Karnataka is second at 524
  • Uttarakhand is at number 3 with 442 tigers.
  • At the fourth place, there is Maharashtra
  • Chhatisgarh and Mizoram saw a decline in their tiger numbers
  • The number of tigers in Odisha remained constant.
  • All other States showed a positive trend.

Why There is an increase in number?

  • Project Tiger: Focused on increasing number of tigers
  • Law and Order: Formation of the task force, Wildlife Crime Control Bureau.
  • Provision: Rehabilitation packages
  • International Cooperation: To ban illegal trade treaty with various countries (Nepal, China, Bangladesh)

Why Some States Are Showing Decline

  • According to the report law and order is the reason — large parts of the state are affected by the Maoist insurgency.

Will update news if found anything useful.

This topic is important under the GSIII Environment and Biodiversity.
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