[Geography] Major Domains of the Earth | Lithosphere Hydrosphere Atmosphere Biosphere | Class 6 Geography Chapter 5

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As of now, we have completed four lessons – 
  1. The Earth in the Solar System
  2. Globe: Latitudes and Longitude
  3. The Motions of the Earth: Rotation and Revolution
  4. Maps

Here we will understand i.e. Major Domains of the Earth which is also chapter 5 of Class 6 Geography NCERT.

  • Mother Earth = Lithosphere + Hydrosphere + Atmosphere + Biosphere
  • Earth gives us land to live, water to drink and air to breathe 


  • The solid, brittle outermost layer of the earth surface.
  • It includes: Thin layer of soil Earth Crust + Upper Mantle (will study later)
  • Basically, it is a solid portion of the earth where we are standing right now.

Earth Surface

  • Continents: Huge landmasses
  • Ocean Basins: Large water bodies


  • Asia: Largest and most populous. Lies in the eastern hemisphere, tropic of cancer passes through this continent. Asia separated from Europe by the Ural Mountains. 
  • Europe: Much smaller. Arctic circle pass through it. 
  • Africa: the second largest. Only continent through which the tropic of Capricorn, tropic of Cancer and equator passes + Sahara dessert in the north.
  • North America: Third largest. Connected to South America by Isthmus of Panama. The Rocky Mountains at the west.
  • South America: Mostly in the southern hemisphere. The Andes are located here. 
  • Australia: Smallest continent. Entirely in the southern hemisphere.
  • Antarctica: Huge. Permanently covered in thick ice sheets. No permanent human settlement here. India has research stations here known as Maitri and Dakshin Gangotri.


  • Gaseous layer
  • Consist of oxygen + nitrogen + carbon dioxide and other gases
  • It is a dynamic mixture of gases that surrounds the earth


  • The hydrosphere includes water in all forms i.e. ice + water + water vapour
  • Blue Planet: 71% of the earth is covered with water and 29% is with the land. 
  • More than 97% of water is found in the land and too salty.
  • Despite being blue water planet we are facing a water crisis.
  • Oceans are major part of the hydrosphere. Also, oceans have 3 important movements – waves, tides and ocean currents that we will study in later part.


  • Pacific: Largest. Spread over 33% of the earth. Mariana Trench the deepest point on the earth. Circular in shape.
  • Atlantic: S shaped. Flanked by America and Africa + Europe. Highly indented coastlines are good for natural harbours. 
  • Indian: Only ocean named after a country. Triangular in shape.
  • Southern: Encircles Antarctica up to 60 degrees south latitude.
  • Arctic: Located within the arctic circle and surrounds the North Pole.


  • A layer of Gas called atmosphere surrounds the earth.
  • It protects us from harmful rays.
  • Moreover, it provides us with the air we breathe.
  • As altitude i.e., height increases the density of atmosphere decreases. It maxes at sea level.
  • Wind: Moving air is called wind.
  • Based on composition, temperature and some other properties atmosphere is divided into 5 layers-
    1. Troposphere
    2. Stratosphere
    3. Mesosphere
    4. Thermosphere
    5. Exosphere
  • We will study them in detail in the next standard possibly in next week ?


  • It is the narrow zone of contact between the land, water and air.
  • This zone is unique to planet earth. 
  • Earth supports various organisms – ranging from microbes to mammals
  • The organisms of the biosphere can be further divided in
    • Plant Kingdom
    • Animal Kingdom

To, conclude all these domains are interconnected. Mankind should limit the use of resources and maintain harmony between these domains.

A. Which Mountain Range Separates Europe from Asia?

  1. The Appalachian 
  2. The Ural
  3. The Pamir Knot
  4. The Atlas

B. India and Sri Lanka are Separated by- 

  1. An Isthmus of Palk
  2. Suez Canal
  3. Malacca Strait
  4. Palk Strait

C. Why there is carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?

  1. because of industrialization
  2. Emission of GHGs from vehicles
  3. Burning fossil fuel & Wood + Deforestation
  4. All of the above

D. How much per cent of CO2 is present in the atmosphere?

  1. 0.05%
  2. 0.09%
  3. 0.03%
  4. 0.07%

E. Where on the earth sun’s rays reach with oblique angle?

  1. Tropics
  2. Equator
  3. Poles
  4. All of them

Watch the video here.






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