Later Mural Traditions | Art and Culture
- Later Mural Traditions means painting tradition after Ajanta paintings
- Mural: It is any piece of artwork (painted or applied directly) on a wall OR ceiling OR other permanent surfaces.
Badami Murals Under Chalukya
- Located in the State of Karnataka
- Capital of the Western Chalukyan Dynasty
- Mangalesha patronized the excavation of the Badami Caves
- Cave No. 4 is popularly known as Vishnu cave
- Court scene and royal family watching dances
- Eye sockets are large, eyes are half-closed, and the lips are protruding
- One of the earliest surviving Hindu paintings
Murals Under the Pallava
- Pallavas were great patrons of the arts.
- Mahendravarma I – 7th century AD built temples in Panamalai + Mandagapattu + Kanchipuram.
- The inscription at Mandagapattu mentions the king Mahendravarma I with several titles such as –
- Vichitrachitta (curious-minded),
- Chaityakari (temple-builder)
- Chitrakarapuli (tiger among artists)
- Paintings at the Kanchipuram temple: patronised by the Pallava king Rajasimha.
- Painting of Somaskanda: large, round face (only traces have remained)
- Increased ornamentation in this period as compared to the previous.
- The depiction of the torso is a bit elongated than previous
Murals Under the Pandyas
- Examples: Tirumalaipuram caves + Jaina caves at Sittanvasal
- Jaina caves at Sittanvasal:
- Paintings on the ceilings of the shrine + in verandas + on the bracket.
- Dancing figures of celestial nymphs.
- Contours are in vermillion red and the bodies are painted yellow.
- eyes are elongated and sometimes protrude off the face
Murals Under the Cholas
- Ruled between 9th to 13th century
- 11th Century: Chola reached their zenith of power
- Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola built temples
- Brihadeswara Temple at Thanjavur. Most imp paintings are seen here
- Gangaikonda Cholapuram, at Darasuram.
- Chola paintings: @Nartamalai.
- Two layers of paint were seen. The upper layer was executed during the Nayaka period (16th century).
- The Chola paintings depict narrations of various forms of Lord Shiva,
- Shiva in Kailas,
- Shiva as Nataraja,
- as Tripurantaka.
- Also, there is a portrait of Rajaraja (with mentor Kuruvar)
- After Chola, Vijayanagar emerged
- Hampi was the capital.
- Early phase: Paintings at Tiruparakunram, near Trichy (14th century)
- Lepakshi (Andhra Pradesh) paintings on the walls of the Shiva Temple.
- Lines are fluid
- Faces are in profile
- 2D figures and objects
- These features adopted by the Nayaka
Virupaksha Temple at Hampi
- Paintings on the ceilings of the Mandapa.
- Depicting events from dynastic history
- Events from the Mahabharata and the Ramayana.
- Examples: portraying Vidyaranya, Bukkaraya Harsha’s spiritual teacher carried in a palanquin in a procession; incarnations of Vishnu.
- Faces + fig are shown in profile.
- Large frontal eyes + narrow waists.
- Extension of the Vijayanagara styles.
- Showcased episodes of Mahabharata + Ramayana + Krishna Leela.
- In Thiruparakunram, paintings from 2 periods are observed
- 14th century: scenes from the life of Mahavira.
- 17th century: Thiruparakunram, Sreerangam and Tiruvarur.
- Tiruvarur: A panel describing the story of Machukunda.
- Sri Krishna Temple at Chengam, Arcot: 60 panels narrating the Ramayana. (Late phase of the Nayaka period).
- Male figures with slim waists and less heavy abdomens.
- Painting of Nataraja @Tiruvalanjuli – good example of Nayaka art.
- 16th- 18th century
- Unique in style
- Though some elements borrowed from Nayaka and Vijayanagara
- Vibrant + luminous colours.
- Human figures have shown 3-dimensionally.
- The theme of the paintings –
- Locally popular episodes of Hindu mythology
- local versions of the Mahabharata + Ramayana (oral traditions)
More than 60 sites with mural paintings
- Dutch Palace (Kochi)
- Krishnapuram Palace (Kayamkulam),
- Padmanabhapuram Palace (Travancore)
- Pundareekapuram Krishna temple
- Panayanarkavu, Thirukodithanam
- Sri Rama temple, Triprayar
- Vadakkunathan temple, Thrissur
- Pithoro: Parts of Rajasthan + Gujarat.
- Mithila paintings: Mithila, Jharkhand + Bihar region
- Warli paintings: Maharashtra