In this post you will get handwritten notes of history of modern India Extremist phase from 1905-1919 in one single page. I have wrote full blog explaining this phase and at the end you will get full one page revision notes for the same. For easier navigation use contents.
- 1885-1905: Moderate phase of politics. INC believed in British India. As it was initial phase of INC. So, they wished British rule should continue. Consequently, Indians will get modern education, experience in governance and finally we will be capable of self governance.
- 3P Policy of Moderates: Petitions, Prayers and Propaganda.
- Demands of Moderates: Limited self government, greater budgetary powers, number of Indians Viceroy Executive Council should be increased and so on. (VEC ~ Cabinet)
- Contribution of Moderates: Economic critique of British rule. Dadabhai Naoroji, RC Dutt and MG Ranade wrote against British rule (See Notes). Also, defence of civil rights and freedom of press. Expansion of councils and so on. Exposed exploitative character at some extent.
- Weakness of Moderates: narrow social base. Also masses played a passive role (little belief in masses). Worked within constitutional framework so demands were limited.
- Lord Curzon: Curbed freedom of the press, Spent millions in Delhi Durbar (1902), Partition of Bengal.
Partition of Bengal
- Spread of Western Ideas: Western ideas spread to Bengal first hence hub of Nationalism
- To Suppress Nationalism: Province of Bengal was divided into east Bengal and West Bengal
- East Bengal = Assam + Present day Bangladesh with Muslim majority over Hindus
- West Bengal = present-day West Bengal + Bihar and Odisha with Hindu Majority
- Lord Curzon discussed partition of Bengal with secretary of state Herbert Risley
- Herbert Risley “Bengal united is power”
- On 19 July 1905, formal announcement of Bengal partition made
- Two Movements
- In response to announcement: Anti Partition Movement —> Goal: To revoke Partition
- On 16 October 1905 Bengal divided —> Swadeshi and boycott movement —> Goal Swaraj
- Movement attained popularity with name Swadeshi.
- Note: Bengal remained divided for six years.
Significance of the Swadeshi Movement
- Indian National Movement took leap forward: With the beginning of the Swadeshi movement in the early years of the 20th century the Indian national movement took a major leap forward. A large number of students, women and Rural and Urban people participated in the movement thus it was the first time that the masses began to be associated with the movement.
- Boycott: Boycott was the most successful program on the movement. Women refuse to wear foreign bangles and utensils, Dhobi refused to wash foreign clothes. Also cobbler (shoe maker) stopped mending foreign shoes. British capitalists class suffered heavy losses.
- Atma-Shakti: The movement emphasised on Atma-Shakti (Atma-sakti) it meant assertion of dignity, honour and prestige.
- Swadeshi: Opening of indigenous industries like
- PC Ray –> Opened BENGAL CHEMICAL FACTORY,
- VO Chidambaram –> Opened SWADESHI STEAM NAVIGATION COMPANY.
- Ravindranath Tagore –> Opened SHANTI NIKETAN in 1911.
- Samiti: This movement led to the voluntary participation of several youth who started organising into groups known as SAMITI.
- travelled to rural areas, countryside and popularised Swadeshi songs,
- provided relief to the people in times of famines and
- set up arbitration courts.
- Example: SWADESH BANDHAB SAMITI by Ashwini Kumar Mitra.
- Contribution in Art and Culture: This moment expressed its self in the field of culture as well. Literature, painting, music, songs were composed on nationalist themes.
- Rabindranath Tagore composed AMAR SONAR BANGLA.
- His nephew Abhindranath Tagore made a famous painting BHARAT MATA (1905)
- Bharat Mata Painting: this painting reflected the collective aspirations of the contemporary Indians.
- A sheave of corn reflects freedom from hunger,
- a piece of cloth required to cover the body,
- Rudraksha for spirituality and
- book for knowledge
All this erupted rift between moderates and extremists.
- 1905 Benaras session –> Rift between moderates and extremist. Moderates wanted to follow constitutional method. Also boycott only English goods and keep it limited to Bengal. Extremists on the other hand wanted to spread the boycott movement to rest of India. Boycott everything related to Britishers.
- 1906: Calcutta session –> Extremist were popular. Wanted Tilak to preside. But moderates suggested D. Naoroji. As he was respected among moderates as well as extremists no body opposed him. Passed 4 resolutions i.e. Boycott, Self rule, Swadeshi, National education.
- 1907 Surat Split –> First rift over venue. Pune and Nagpur discarded because popularity of Tilak over there. RB Ghosh presided session. Finally, congress split. Moderates captured INC.
- Dual Policy of British India: Suppressing the extremists (Stick) and conciliating the moderates (Carrot).
So next development was Morley-Minto Reforms.
Morely Minto Reforms
- Indian Council Act 1909
- Power of asking supplementary question
- Separate Electorate for Muslims: the Muslim members to be elected only by Muslim voters. Thus, the Act ‘legalised communalism’.
- Lord Minto –> Father of Communal Electorate.
Home Rule League Movement
- Background: Congress controlled by moderates since split. Lost touch with masses.death of G.K. Gokhale, and Pheroze Shah Mehtain 1915 weakened the INC further.
- Home rule league: Two fragments. To educate masses regarding self rule.
- Tilak’s Home Rule League: Returned to India in 1914.
- Area: Maharashtra (Except Bombay, CP and Karnataka)
- More organised than Annie Beasant and more volunteer
- Newspaper: Kesari, Marahatta and Young India
- Annie Besant Home Rule League: Irish. Theosophical society. Joined congress in 1914.
- Area: Rest of India
- Less volunteer than Tilak’s Home Rule League
- Newspaper: New India and Commonwealth
- Tilak’s Home Rule League: Returned to India in 1914.
Lucknow Pact 1916
- Agreement between Muslim League and INC. Congress accepted separate electorate for muslims. This was mistake. Led to partition.
- Sarojini Naidu, gave MA Jinnah the title of “Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity”.
- Moderates and Extremist patch up.
DM for any query on Instagram