[Geography] Globe: Latitudes and Longitudes | NCERT Class 6 Chapter 2 | Notes


In the last post, we learnt about the Earth in the Solar System, it was the first chapter of class VI NCERT. Today we will focus on Globe: longitude and latitude.

Before we discuss remember all these lines that we are discussing in this chapter are imaginary.

Also, I would like to tell that this post and video on youtube supplement each other. I mean to say if I have left one or two definitions in the video, then you will find them here.

Moreover, do not skip NCERT at least read it twice. It will help you. Do not wait for me to finish all the videos. Class 6 NCERT can be finished in one day i.e. one reading. Use these videos for revision and to clear some concepts.

NCERT Class 6 Chapter 2 Notes

What is Globe?

Globe is a miniature model of the earth.

What is the Axis of the Earth?

It is an imaginary line passing through the North Pole to the South Pole. Earth’s Axis is tilted 23.5º to the orbital plane.

What is the Equator?

It is an imaginary line which divides the earth into two equal parts.

Some Important Latitudes

  • Tropic of Cancer: (23½° N) in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • Tropic of Capricorn: (23½° S) in the Southern Hemisphere.
  • Arctic Circle: at 66½° north of the equator.
  • Antarctic Circle: at 66½° south of the equator.

What is Torrid Zone?

  • The mid-day sun is exactly overhead at least once a year on all latitudes
  • Where? in between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.
  • So this area receives the maximum heat and called Torrid Zone.

What is the Temperate Zone?

  • The area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle in the Northern Hemisphere plus
  • The area bounded by the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle in the Southern Hemisphere
  • Moderate temperature, therefore, called Temperate Zones.

What is Frigid Zone?

Areas lying between the Arctic Circle and the Northern Hemisphere and the Antarctic Circle and the South Pole in the Southern Hemisphere are very cold.

Important Imaginary Lines

  • Meridian: Lines connecting the North Pole to the South Pole.
  • Parallels: Circles parallel to the equator.
  • Latitude and Longitudes: Coordinate system used to locate the point on the earth.

What is Prime Meridian?

All latitudes are of different sizes but this is not the case with longitudes, all meridians are of equal length.

The question arose where should we have a reference line. Finally, they decided to choose the meridian which passed through Greenwich the British Royal Observatory.

Note: By measuring the angle of the Pole Star from your place, you can know the latitude of your place.

Relation Between Longitude and Time

The Earth moves counter-clockwise seen from North Star i.e. West to East. The earth rotates 360° in about 24 hours, which means 15° in an hour or 1° in four minutes.

What is Local Time?

Local time is the time where you are, or where the event is, or where the person is who is being talked about. All places on a given meridian have the same local time. It is different than the standard time.

What is Standard Time?

To avoid confusions uniform time throughout the country or a region. In India, the longitude of 82½° E (82° 30 ‘ E) is treated as the standard meridian.

The local time at this meridian is taken as the standard time for the whole country. It is known as the Indian Standard Time.

What Are Time Zones?

Large countries with vast longitudinal extent do not have a single standard time for the whole country. Generally, search countries go for more than one time zone each approximately 15° of longitude apart.

  • Russia uses 11 time zones
  • Canada uses 6.
  • The USA is spread across 6 Time Zones (inc. Hawaii Time Zone).
  • China extends across 4 Times Zones

*Please check the facts again.

What is the International Date Line

  • Imaginary line agreed internationally which follows the meridian of 180 degrees a traveller crossing the IDL from west to east, gains a day and while crossing from east to west, loses a day.

Watch the Video

Choose the most appropriate answer

Q. What is the value of the prime meridian.

    1. 90 degrees
    2. zero degree
    3. 60 degree
    4. 180 degrees

Q. Frigid zone lies near –

    1. the poles
    2. equator
    3. tropic of Cancer
    4. tropic of Capricorn.

Q. the Arctic circle is located in

    1. the northern hemisphere
    2. the southern hemisphere
    3. the eastern hemisphere
    4. the Western hemisphere

Q. India is located in

    1. Northeastern hemisphere
    2. North-Western hemisphere
    3. South Western hemisphere
    4. Southeastern hemisphere

Q. Which country has the maximum time zones

    1. USA
    2. China
    3. Russia
    4. Canada

Q. THE Antarctic circle is located in the

    1. Northern hemisphere
    2. Southern hemisphere
    3. both of the above
    4. none of the above

Q. What is correct with respect to meridian

    1. Meridian is an imaginary semi great circle
    2. all meridians are of equal length
    3. the prime meridian and 180-degree meridian divides the earth into two equal halves the eastern hemisphere and the Western hemisphere.
    4. Both are wrong

Next post will be about revolution and rotation. Answer below.


  1. 1. Zero degree
    2. Equator
    3. The Northern hemisphere
    4. North Eastern hemisphere
    5. Russia 11 time zones
    6. Southern hemisphere
    7. Option 2 and 3 are correct

  2. Bro I need Ur help bro pls pls pls I’m begging u pls pls help me bro
    I just joined in open degree I have 3 years in my hand
    Bcz of my family prblms I stopped education that’s y I joined in open University
    So im working now for my family and I have 3 to 4 hours daily to study and I have 3 years to complete my degree so
    For this 3 years daily 3 to 4 hours time so pls make a time table for me I mean for 3 years I need perfect plan How to start when to start books and every detail I need from u sir…..
    Make a strategy for me from NCERT to standard books what to study and when how to study everything give me information sir pls pls pls …..

  3. 1.Zero degree
    2.The Poles
    3.The Northern Hemishphere
    4.The North Eastern
    6.The Southern Hemisphere
    7.1,2 and 3

  4. 1) Zero degree
    2) The Poles
    3) The Northern Hemisphere
    4) The North Eastern Hemisphere
    5) Russia
    6) The Southern Hemisphere
    7) 1,2 and 3


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here