Hey, here I have made geography one-liner notes from NCERTs. These are very basic notes and will help you in quick revision.
- Gaseous Hypothesis: Immanuel Kant
- Nebular Hypothesis: Laplace
- Planetesimal Hypothesis: Chamberlin and Moulton. Cigar-shaped material wandered from the Sun and later became planets.
- Binary Star Hypothesis: HN Russell. Sun coexisted with other stars.
- Inter-Stellar Dust Hypothesis: Otto Schmidt Friction between Sun and Solar Nebula (He, H and Dust) lead to accretion and formed the planets.
- Steady State Hypothesis: Hoyle. The universe is roughly the same at any point in time.
- Space is Expanding: Edwin Hubble. Space between galaxies is increasing.
- Big Bang Theory: George Gamow. The universe emerged from a super dense and super hot point called Singularity about 13.7 billion years ago.
- Full Moon: Poornima.
- New Moon: Amavasya
- Celestial Bodies
- Stars: Big and have their own heat which is radiated outwards.
- Constellations: Group of stars ex. Ursa Major, Big Bear and Saptarishi.
- Pole Star: North Star which indicates the north direction. Facing north along with two pointer stars through three stumps we see bright Pole Star.
- Planets: Celestial bodies who do not have their own heat and light.
- Orbits: Regularly repeated elliptical path around parent celestial body
- Geoid: Earth-like shaped
- Satellite: Celestial body that moves around the planets
- Speed of light: 300000 km per second
- Neil Armstrong: was the first man to step on the surface of the moon on 21 July 1969.
- Asteroids: a small rocky body orbiting the sun. Large numbers of these, ranging enormously in size, are found between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
- Meteoroids: a small body moving in the solar system that would become a meteor if it entered the earth’s atmosphere.
- Meteorite: Large piece of rock or metal from space that has landed on Earth
- Galaxy: A galaxy is a huge system of billions of stars, and clouds of dust and gases. There are millions of such galaxies that make the Universe.
- Globe: Miniature model of the earth.
- Axis of the Earth: It is an imaginary line passing through the North Pole to the South Pole. Earth’s Axis is tilted 23.5º to the orbital plane.
- Equator: It is an imaginary line which divides the earth into two equal parts.
- Tropic of Cancer: (23½° N) in the Northern Hemisphere.
- Tropic of Capricorn: (23½° S) in the Southern Hemisphere.
- Arctic Circle: at 66½° north of the equator.
- Antarctic Circle: at 66½° south of the equator.
- Torrid Zone: The mid-day sun is exactly overhead at least once a year on all latitudes in between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. This area, therefore, receives the maximum heat and is called the Torrid Zone.
- Temperate Zone: The areas bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle in the Northern Hemisphere, and the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle in the Southern Hemisphere, have moderate temperatures. These are, therefore, called Temperate Zones.
- Frigid Zones: Areas lying between the Arctic Circle and the Northern Hemisphere and the Antarctic Circle and the South Pole in the Southern Hemisphere are very cold.
- Meridian: Lines connecting the North Pole to the South Pole.
- Parallels: Circles parallel to the equator.
- Latitude and Longitudes: Coordinate system used to locate a point on the earth.
- Prime Meridian: Unlike parallels of latitude, all meridians are of equal length. Hence to take reference to the meridian which passed through Greenwich, where the British Royal Observatory is located is decided as the Prime Meridian. It divides the earth into two equal halves.
- Note: By measuring the angle of the Pole Star from your place, you can know the latitude of your place.
- Great Circles: It is the circle which divides the earth in two equal semi-sphere. When a plane dissects the earth through the centre of the earth, it creates Great Circle. Of all the parallels equator alone make a Great Circle, whereas all meridians make a semi Great Circle. The minor arc of a great circle between two points is the shortest surface-path between them, often called the “Great Circle Distance” between the two points. Aircraft follows this path.
- Longitude and Time: The Earth moves counter clockwise seen from North Star i.e. West to East. The earth rotates 360° in about 24 hours, which means 15° in an hour or 1° in four minutes.
- Local Time: Local time is the time where you are, or where the event is, or where the person is who is being talked about. All places on a given meridian have the same local time. It is different than the standard time. Ex. When there is shortest shadow moment it is noon irrespective of standard time.
- Standard Time: To avoid confusions uniform time throughout the country or a region. In India, the longitude of 82½° E (82° 30 ‘ E) is treated as the standard meridian. The local time at this meridian is taken as the standard time for the whole country. It is known as the Indian Standard Time.
- Time Zones: Large countries with vast longitudinal extent do not have a single standard Time for the whole country. Generally, search countries go for more than one time zone each approximately 15° of longitude apart. Russia uses 11 time zones while Canada uses 6. The USA is spread across 6 Time Zones (inc. Hawaii Time Zone). Although China extends across 4 Times Zones, at least officially it observes the time of 120 degrees east Meridian which is closest to its capital.
- International Date Line: An imaginary line agreed internationally which follows the meridian of 180 degree – a traveller crossing the IDL from west to east, gains a day and while crossing from east to west, loses a day.
- DST: Daylight saving is the practice of forwarding clocks during the summer season so that the evening daylight lasts longer than usual, at the same time, sacrificing the time of the sunrise to save energy.
- Jet Lag: The effect of sudden switch-off time zones in air travel, resulting in tiredness and getting out step with day and night.
- Circadian rhythm: It is metabolic Rhythm found in a most organism which generally coincides with 24 hours a day its most evident manifestation is a regular cycle of sleeping and working.
MOTIONS OF THE EARTH
- Rotation: Movement of the earth around on its axis
- Revolution: The movement of the earth around the sun in a fixed path or orbit is called Revolution. It is the second motion of the earth.
- Orbital Plane: Plane formed by the Orbit
- Circle of Illumination: The circle that divides the day from night on the globe
- Do you know: The ancient Indian astronomer Aryabhatta had stated that ‘the earth is round and rotates on its own axis’
- Leap Year: Calendar year having one extra day. It takes 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 45 seconds for the earth to complete one revolution around the sun. We have a year of 365 days. Rest ~6 hours every year are grouped together and after 4 years we get one whole day.
- Elliptical Orbit: Elongated path of revolution around the sun.
- Summer Solstice: the longest day of the northern hemisphere i.e. 21st June Since Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the sun.
- Winter Solstice: Shortest day of the Southern Hemisphere i.e. 22nd December.
- Equinox: Equal day and equal night on 23rd September and 21st March.
- Physical Map: Maps showing natural features of the earth such as mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers, oceans etc.
- Political Maps: Maps showing cities, towns and villages, and different countries and states of the world with their boundaries are called political maps.
- Thematic Maps: Road maps, rainfall maps, forests, industries.
- Scale: 1 cm on the map can be 5 km on ground then scale is 1 cm: 5 km.
- Small Scale Map: When large areas like continents or countries are to be shown on paper, then we use a small scale. For example, 5 cm. on the map shows 500 km. of the ground. It is called a small scale map.
- Large Scale Map: When a small area like your village or town is to be shown on paper, then we use a large scale that is 5 cm. on the map shows 500 metres only on the ground. It is called a large scale map.
- Cardinal Points: Each of the four main points of the compass (north, south, east, and west).
- Plan: Small area like a room on a large scale map.
DOMAINS OF THE EARTH
- Lithosphere: Solid portion
- Atmosphere: Gaseous layer surrounding the earth
- Hydrosphere: Water
- Biosphere: Narrow zone where we find land, water and air together, which contains all forms of life.
- Continents: Large landmasses
- Ocean Basins: Huge water bodies
- Strait: Narrow passage of water connecting two large water bodies
- Isthmus: A narrow strip of land joining two landmasses.
In the upcoming posts, you will learn about lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere simultaneously (As I get time). Also, I have attached a one-page note of atmosphere above hope it helps you.
DM if you have any query.