In this post, you will learn about the major landforms of the Earth i.e mountains, plains and plateaus. As of now, we have completed four lessons –
- The Earth in the Solar System
- Globe: Latitudes and Longitude
- The Motions of the Earth: Rotation and Revolution
- Major Domains of The Earth
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The surface of the earth is not uniform throughout some part of the earth surface is elevated higher than the another. These natural features are the landforms.
These landforms are the result of two processes known as internal processes and external processes.
- Internal Process: Upliftment or sinking of the earth surface.
- External process: Continuous wearing down and rebuilding the land surface.
- Erosion: Wearing down of the land surface
- Deposition: rebuilt of the land surface
Depending on elevation and slope landforms are classified as mountains, plateaus and plains.
It is a land surface that rises higher than the surrounding area.
- Mountain: A hill with an elevation of more than 600 meters is termed as a mountain. Mountains have a small summit and broad base. Some mountains are even higher than the clouds.
- Glaciers: a Permanently frozen river of ice
- Mountains arranged in a line are called range for ex. Himalayan range
There are three types of mountains
- Fold Mountain: These are created because of the tectonic activity we will learn about it in there next class. The Himalayas, the Alps, even Arvalis range all of these are fold mountains.
- Block Mountain: When huge rocks are broken and displaced vertically. The uplifted block is called Horst and the lowered block is a Graben.
- Volcanic Mountain: These are formed because of volcanic activity.
Significance of the mountains
- Mountains are rugged terrain, not suitable for living. Even-though mountains are important because they are a storehouse of water
- Moreover, glaciers fed water to the river in the summer season, This water is utilised in irrigation, electricity generation, inland transportation and so on.
- Also, mountains are biologically diverse and have a rich variety of plants and animals, Moreover mountains are tourist hot spots.
- It is an elevated flat land. It is a flat-topped table land standing above the surrounding area. It may have one or more sides with steep slopes.
- Height may vary from a few hundred to several thousand. Deccan plateau of India is one of the oldest plateaus. Also, Tibetan plateau is the highest plateau in the world.
- Plateaus are important and useful because they are mineral-rich. For example, African plateau is famous for gold and diamond mining.
- Also, there are many waterfalls in plateau areas which attract tourist.
- Notably, lava plateau-like Deccan plateau is rich in black soil which is fertile and good for cultivation.
- Plains are large stretches of flat land, In general, that are not more than 200 meters above means sea level. Most of the plains are formed by rivers.
- River while coming down erodes mountains because of its speed. After she reaches plains flat plains speed of river gets decreased and river deposit their load consisting of stones, sands and slit. T
- These deposits accumulate in valleys and plains are formed. Plains are fertile land, also transport is very easy.
- Plains are highly productive for cultivation and settlement of humans.
- Plains are very thickly populated regions of the world for example-
- Brahmaputra – Gaga Plain in India and Bangladesh and
- Yangtze Plain in China
Landforms and the People
- Life is difficult in hilly areas or mountainous terrains, that is also one of the reasons why centre govt allocates special packages for hilly states.
- In contrast, plains provide much better conditions.
- Sometimes natural phenomena like floods, earthquakes, cyclones destroy everything. So we should create awareness about such incidences to minimise losses.
- Also, we should be careful while using resources- we should not build houses on fertile land and we should not throw garbage on land carelessly.
MCQ QUIZ Major Landforms of the Earth
A. Consider the following statements
- Tibetan plateau is an example of an intermontane plateau
- Bolian Altiplano is an example of a volcanic plateau
- Deccan plateau is an example of the volcanic plateau.
Choose the correct option-
- only 1
- 1 and 2
- 1 and 3
- All of the above
B. Himalayan mountain ranges is an example of –
- block mountain
- fold mountain
- volcanic mountain
- none of the above
C. Which among the following is the longest mountain range in the world?
- Himalayan mountain range
- Rocky mountain range
- Andes mountain range
- Atlas mountain range
D. Why plains are the most populous areas in the world? Find out the correct statement.
- Good for economic activity
- fertile lands are food for agriculture
- Transportation is easier
- All of the above
E. Which among the following is the oldest landform in India?
- Deccan Lava plateau
- Gangetic plains
- Himalayan mountain ranges
- Aravali hills