[Modern India] Battle of Plassey 1757 + Battle of Buxar 1765 One Liner Notes for UPSC

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Some Events that You Should Know

EVENTS
PERSONALITIES
  • Granting Royal Farman
  • Seven Year War
  • Battle of Plassey
  • Battle of Buxar
  • Treaty of Allahabad
  • Rangila
  • Murshid Quli Khan
  • Alivardi Khan
  • Siraj Ud-Daula
  • Mir Jafar
  • Mir Qasim

Seven Year War

  • Between France and England
  • From 1756-1763
  • War started in Europe
  • Effect: Insecurity among french and English trading companies.
  • As a result, started fortification

The companies started building walls around Fort William. This did not go well with Siraj. He notified to stop fortification. French stopped but English did not.

ROLE OF PERSONALITIES

  • Farrukhsiyar: Weak Mughal ruler. Issued a Farman in 1717. It gave privilege to the company of duty-free trade from Bengal. In return, the company had to pay Rs 3000 annually to the Mughal empire. The Company servants were allowed to carry on private trade (but without privileges of Farman)
  • Murshid Quli Khan: Founder of Bengal (successor state)
  • Alivardi Khan: Came into power in 1740. (He had 3 daughters. Before his death nominated daughters son for the throne) His name Siraj Uddaula (1756-57).
  • Ghaseti Begum: Eldest daughter of Ali Vardi Khan. She claimed the throne of Bengal. The company supported her claim
  • Krishna Ballabh: Left capital Murshidabad and went to Fort William.
  • Manikchand: When Siraj captured Fort William he appointed Manikchand as in charge who later sided with Clive.
  • Robert Clive: Commander of British Army took Fort William back from Manikchand with the help from Ami Chand (Middleman arranged a meeting with Manikchand)
  • Mir Jafar: Initially commander of Nawab’s army. Mir Jaffar changed side and become Nawab (puppet ruler) in 1757 and was removed in 1760. Mir Jaffar’s Son-in-law became Nawab in 1760.
  • Mir Qasim: Most capable Nawab after Aliwardi Khan. He was son in law of Mir Jafar.
    1. He was strong, intelligent and efficient.
    2. He checked misuse of Farman, tried to maintain a skilled army on the European lines with the help of European instructors and mercenaries
    3. Also checked corruption.
    4. Mir Qasim shifted the capital of Murshidabad, Bengal to Munger in Bihar
    5. Started an arms-making factory.
    6. He even freed all merchants including Indians from paying duties which led to equal treatment of Indian and English merchant. This led to a series of battles. Defeated Mir Qasim fled to Awadh. Mir Jaffar was restored again.

BATTLE OF PLASSEY

East India Company under Robert Clive defeated the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies. This battle is important as it consolidated British EIC’s position in Bengal.

Timeline of the Battle of Plassey

  • 1690– Aurangzeb granted British rights for duty-free trade in Bengal
  • 1717– Farukhsiyar granted right to carry on duty-free trade
  • The 1750’s: British were apprehensive of French presence & victories in South India +  English private trade suffered heavily in 1750s as a result of French competition in collusion with Asian merchants.
  • 1755– Fortification without Nawab’s permission
  • 1756: Siraj-Ud-Daula became nawab, took over the British factory in Kasimbazar. This was followed by Siraj’s attack on Calcutta & its capture on 20th June 1756.
  • 1757: Battle of Plassey

1765 BATTLE OF PLASSEY

Clive defeated Siraj (the war was only a skirmish) as the military commander of Siraj i.e Mir Jafar effected a coup-de-eat with the support of Jagat Seth brothers. Plassey Plunder of £275,000 distributed among navy and army members of EIC. Bullion import stopped and export continued to China and other parts.

Causes of Battle of Plassey

  • Fortification of Fort William: Alivardi Khan being suspicious of Anglo-French activities (Carnatic experience) never allowed fortification of European settlements in Calcutta. French stopped after Nawab Siraj’s order but EIC did not.
  • Installing heavy guns on walls: Infuriated Nawab Siraj
  • Giving Shelter to Krishna Ballabh: an official of the Nawab, accused of financial irregularities.
  • Supporting rival claim of Ghaseti Begumannoyed Siraj.
  • Misuse of Dastak (Farmaan) issued by Farukhsiyar: Bengal saw the loss of revenue because of duty-free trade. Moreover, Dastaks were misused by servants to evade taxes.
  • Anglo-French Rivalry: Company saw Siraj as pro-French

Consequences of the Battle of Plassey

  • Siraj Uddaulla assassinated
  • Mir Jafar became the Nawab
  • The company consolidated its position in India
  • Paved way for British rule in India
  • Boosted British Prestige
  • Plassey Plunder – 2,75,000 pound immediate war indemnity was to be paid to the British.
  • Prior to Plassey, trade with Bengal was financed from bullion imported from Europe. After Plassey, bullion was exported from Bengal to China & other parts of India for trade purposes.

1765 Battle of Buxar

battle-of-buxar-plan
Wikimedia

East India Company defeated a joint army (Shaha Alam + Shuja Uddaula + Mir Qasim).

  • Mir Qasim + Shuja Ud-Daulah + Shaha Alam II VS Hector Munro

Time Line of the Battle of Buxar

  • 1763: Shah Alam 2 (Mughal emperor), Sujha-ud-Daula (Awadh), Mir Kasim planned to form a grand alliance to fight against the British.
  • 1764: Battle of Buxar: an 18th century Indian Army with its segmentary social organization was in serious disadvantages against a technically efficient Englishmen with a unified command

Causes of the Battle of Buxar

  • Mir Qasim replaced with Mir Jafar. Mir Qasim complained about the company’s arbitrariness.
  • So Mir Qasim built an army and checked Farman which made company unhappy.
  • Also, he plotted against the British in 1763 along with Mughal emperor and the Nawab of the Awadh.

Effects of the Battle of Buxar

After the Treaty of Allahabad 1765, Shah Alam 2 was treated with respect after the defeat and the nominal rule of Mughal continued. In return, the British were granted

  • Diwani rights (revenue collecting rights) for Bengal, Bihar & Orissa
  • British resident was posted at Murshidabad who became the real locus of power in Bengal province by 1772
  •  In Awadh, Shuja-Ud-Daula paid five million rupees to the company.
  • A British resident was posted in his court & the company was granted duty-free trading rights in Awadh.

Treaty of Allahabad

  • Shaha Alam II signed a treaty where Diwani rights of Bengal, Bihar and Odisha ceded to Company.
  • Diwani implies revenue collection and civil justice. Earlier Nawab used to discharge Diwani and Nizamat (Military power and Criminal Justice).
  • British secured Diwani rights of almost 100 million acres land. Virtually and in reality, the company had both Revenue collection and superior military.
  • The company also secured districts of Kara and Allahabad. Shaha Alam remained in the fort of Allahabad as a pensioner of the company later escorted to Delhi by Mahadaji Scindia.

What Were the Significance of the Battle of Plassey & Battle of Buxar

  • Raised British Prestige
  • Plassey Plunder-Boost to the finances of East India Company
  • Enabled them to build a strong army
  • Treaty of Allahabad: granted them revenue collecting rights.

[In Short] Notes on Battle of Plassey and Battle of Buxar

Causes
Effects
Battle of Plassey
  • Building walls around Fort William
  • Installation of heavy guns on walls
  • The company gave shelter to Krishna Ballabh
  • The company supported the claim of Ghaseti Begum
  • Company individuals misused Farman
  • Siraj Uddaulla assassinated
  • Mir Jafar became the Nawab
Battle of Buxar
  • Mir Qasim replaced with Mir Jafar
  • Mir Qasim complained
  • He built an army and checked Farman
  • Mughal appointed company as Diwan of Bengal
  • Nawab had to pay 50000 every month
  • Revenue of Company Increased enormously
  • Import of gold and silver stopped
  • Company officials became nabobs
  • Diwani: Revenue collection + Civil Justice
  • Nizamat: Law and Order + Criminal Court
  • Dual Administration: Diwani + Nizamat

So this is all from this post.

Also Read: The Extremist Phase of Indian History 1905-1919

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